Tire and Brakes in South Orange

It happens to all of us at one point in time. We get into an automobile collision and need the best auto body shop in South Orange. Hopefully, it is not too bad and we are not seriously injured. But usually the car does not fare as well and comes away with significant damage.

What is the next step after your collision and you need an auto body shop?

Likely, after informing the insurance company you take your vehicle to one of their “approved” vendors.

Here is what happens next. You tell the insurance company what company you choose. By this time they have already taken phones of the car and know how extensive the damage is. If you need an expert to take a look, make sure you go to a repair shop in South Orange. 

They have a computer system that gives them a printed estimate stating what the replacement parts and labor will be based upon a set hourly rate.

This statement is given to the body shop. It comes with a break down of what the labor and parts “should” be and the company has to usually be able to totally fix the car for that price.

Auto body (Collision Repair and Refinishing)

Keep in mind that what is printed out represents the best case scenario and doesn’t allow for items on the car that was missed or problems that come up.

Now here are some things to watch out for. a local auto body shop in South Orange is operating under very, very thin margins and the incentive to “cut corners” is huge. Getting an extra $300 off a job can really add up over the course of the month when you are talking about doing at least 3-5 vehicles every week.

What Happens If You Wreck a Leased Car?

Replacement Parts in Auto Body Shops

Make sure the parts being used on your car are OEM parts. These are replacement auto body parts in South Orange are sent directly from the car manufacturers and are designed with the same specs as the vehicle came with.

The Tire Store

Aftermarket parts can be significantly cheaper yet are not the same quality and make not hold up the same in the event of another accident.

No Realignment? Talk to Your Auto Repair Team!

The frame is usually somewhat bent when a car goes through an accident of any kind. It needs to be properly realigned. You need a serious all hands on deck auto body shop to take care of you here.

Unfortunately, because the money made off one car can be very little the propensity to skip this step is very high. Later down the road this will cause your car to not drive straight but at a tilt and your tires will wear prematurely. So if you need to brush up on some tire repair, ask your mechanic straight away.

Using Bondo (Fillers) Instead of Replacing the Part

Filling any damage in with bondo is not bad in itself. If you know what the auto body shop in South Orange is doing, they tell you, and this is what you are paying for then it is fine.

The problem comes in when you think you are getting a vehicle back that is 99.9% the same as before it was wrecked and it is not. Filling a damaged part in with filler rather than replacing the expensive part is a common tactic and you want to make sure it is not done on your vehicle.

Wheel Alignment Tech Talk - Camber, Caster, Toe-in

All damaged parts should be replaced unless you are paying a lower price for the car to just be fixed (in the case you want the cheapest price and do not care about having a car exactly the same as before). Again, you should really speak to your best auto body shop nearest you!

Keep in mind that most auto body repair shops are honest and are surviving in a tough industry.

rev up your engines, today I'm gonna showyou how to spot a scam body shop before you get towed into one and it's too late,okay it happens to everyone eventually you get in an accident, then you have tohave your car towed to a body shop, the last thing you want is to be in anaccident be knocked around and then the tow truck guy comes and you let himdecide where to tow it, you want to know a good body shop beforehand, then writeit down and put it in your glove box so you'll have it at hand or put it on yourphone, because by law at least here in the United States you get in a wreck, youhave the right to pick wehatever body shop you want to fix your car, nobody canforce you to go to one place, but you have to understand, when the tow truckguys come, they generally get big kickbacks if they got a nice big wreckand they tow it to the body shop that they're affiliated with, they will getfive hundred a thousand maybe even more money for bringing that vehicle to thatbody shop, so you want to have one ready that you trust to say, no tow it here andif you don't know one, you still have the right to have it towed to your house, allthe insurance companies will tow it to your house then later they can tow it toa body shop, don't worry about that you just want to send it to a good job andnot just somebody who's being paid to ship your car off because they getkickbacks, so how do you find out if a body shop is a scam body shop or areally good one well you got to do a little researchhere, unless you live in Houston Texas then you can just ask me, who I use, I don'ttake any kickbacks I've sent many many customers to body shops and never took adime back from their repairs, I just want my customers to get their cars fixedcorrectly, I don't do bodywork so it's no skin off of my nose,and speaking of equipment you got to make sure that the body shop you pickhas a good paint booth, paint boots are giant areas that are completely sealed,so there's no dust they control the humidity for painting, it's veryimportant for getting body work done right, you don't want to have somebodypaint in your car that doesn't have a very good paint booth, try spray-paintingsomething outside, you're gonna see gets on it, hair everything, you got to have aplace that has a good paint booth and you have to have professional guysworking there who know how to blend paint and match it to the color of yourcar, because take a look at this, you can easily tell this bumper has been repaintedit's a completely different shade than the top of the car that wasn't painted, Imean look at that, you can see here's the one that's been repainted, it'scompletely a lighter color here it was not blended correctly, the paint doesn'teven match, so your visitor bodyshop say hey show me a car where youpainted part as a car, see if it matches and if it doesn't they're not any goodat blending paint, go someplace else and speaking of painting bumpers, check thisout this bumper was painted by a guy whodidn't even know what kind of paint to put on the car, realize that theseplastic bumpers are exactly that, they are plastic it requires a special kindof paint with a special bonding agent in order for it to stick, if you use regularcar paint that you put on the hood and put it on the bumper,guess what, it flakes off like this car did, whoever painted this bumper theyhad no notion about how to paint plastic bumpers, they shouldn't be in the bodybusiness and another big thing to check is the body shop area itself, if likethese cars all sitting all over the place they got tons of them looks likethey're busy, go back in a few weeks the same cars are sitting there, that's justa scam that guys use, I used to work for a guy like that years ago, he had all these junkcars and it would sucker people to come in and he wasn't fixing any of thosecars, you see all their stickers are out of date, some of them don't have licenseplates on them, don't go to a place like that cuz odds are, they're gonna takeforever to fix your car and may not even do a good job, because realize one thingbody shop work, it comes and it goes it's not a continuous thing, cars they breakdown all the time it's pretty continuous cars you're always breaking you got tofix them, but car wrecks they occur kind of randomly, so a lot of times these guysdon't have much business at all so if they're one of those guys thataren't that honest, they'll take your car in and say, oh it'll be ready in three days,another car comes in they're gonna make more money, they drop yours and then theyjust work on the car they're making more money, I've seen guys have cars and bodyshops for months for this reason, ask around, other people who theyuse and anybody who says that guy took forever to fix my car,don't go there, you find a guy like me I don't do bodywork, I do mechanical workbut my whole thing was, if people got here by 8:00 in the morning by 5:00 inthe afternoon most of the work I did on most of the cars were finished, I wantedto do stuff that we're in and out fast my customers were happy, they told peopleabout me, I never spent a nickel advertising because all my customerstold everyone about me, and of course you want a place that's been in business alot, but here's the kicker, you gotta do a little bit of research because I had aguy he was a great body man, but as he got older, he made a son take over theshop and his son had no interest in doing bodywork on cars really, so it'stime went on, I used the guy for a decade and a half, but then when a son took overI sent customers there they could bring the car over to me and I'd look at themand you could see scratches from the sandpaper that they didn't make smoothand paint it over so it had permanent scratches in it, you got to make surethat the person who's running to place cares about what his shop puts out andhere's where the Internet can really help you out a lot, because of peoplehave crappy bodywork done and it doesn't look right, they're gonna complain on theInternet, so if you do a research on the guy and you see, there's complaintsall over the place about this guy then you'd think, I'm not gonna go thereI'm gonna go somewhere else and although I'm always trying to save people moneyhere, don't go too cheap with bodywork you see those ads when I was a kid itused to be we'll paint any car for you know 59. 95 now it's like 200 or 300dollars, you're not gonna get a very good paint job of your car for that kind ofmoney these days, I had my old Celica done like five years ago at one ofthose places and you can see the paint's flat, it just doesn't hold up, to do agood paint job costs a lot of money to paint the entire car and speaking of agood shop a good shop handles all insuranceclaims, you don't do anything, if they say we want some money up front, you gosomeplace else, the good ones they all use insurance companies where they callit up, they handle all the paperwork if there's a problem they call up theinsurance company and say, look we just pulled off the bumper and found out thatthere's more damage underneath, then they can send a guy to look to make surethat's the truth, you don't have to get involved in the actual repair, and like anything you pretty much have to feel out the shop, as peoplein Texas have always said, you don't want a guy who's all hat and no cattle, or when Iwas younger in New York, hey you don't want the guy who's got the motorcyclejacket, but he doesn't have the motorcycle, there's plenty of good body shopsout there, you just have to find them, but since people are always getting in wrecks, heythat's your friends, see cars that were wrecks that they had fixed, look at it closelyand look at it in the Sun when the sun's shining, because the human eye we can seemillions of different varieties of colors, you can see hey wow that wasfixed really well or hey that doesn't match at all or there's paintthat's bubbled up or you look at the fender the guy replaced and parts ofthe gaps or half an inch and other parts are an inch and a half gap, you knowthat place does lousy work and don't go there and when you do find a good bodyshop hey, pass the word of mouth around go on the internet tell people, tell yourfriends about it, because if you find a good body shop, you tell other peopleabout it, they're going to continue to do good work, especially when they say, heyJoe sent me, they don't want Joe to get mad because if he's telling a bunch ofpeople how good they are and he does lousy work, they know they're gonnalose business and if they don't have to spend me advertising money like I neverspent, that's more money in their pocket and less money out of yours that's payingfor the body shop and the advertising, so take a tip for me and find a good bodyshop before you get in a wreck, because it's often too late then and you'll bestuck towed to some place where everybody's getting kickbacks fromeverybody else and the work is relatively shoddy,so if you never want to miss another one of my new car repair videos, remember toring that Bell!.

Fake Auto Body Repair Scheme Targets Victims With Dents In Cars

The insurance companies nickel and dime them at every turn and they are made to give them at time ridiculous discounts to get any business. That’s why having an auto body shop in your corner can’t be stressed enough.

Nevertheless, all an auto body shop should be on is your side and corners should not be cut at your expense and being watchful is just a smart way to go.

Your Auto Body Shop In South Orange Should Help You With What Car Needs Exactly?

Buy Used Tires

  (Redirected from Mechanical Engineering) Mechanical Engineering, is the discipline that applies engineering, physics, and materials science principles to design, analyze, manufacture, and maintain mechanical systems. It is the branch of engineering that involves the design, production, and operation of machinery.[1][2] It is one of the oldest and broadest of the engineering disciplines. The mechanical engineering field requires an understanding of core areas including mechanics, kinematics, thermodynamics, materials science, structural analysis, and electricity. In addition to these core principles, mechanical engineers use tools such as computer-aided design (CAD), and product life cycle management to design and analyze manufacturing plants, industrial equipment and machinery, heating and cooling systems, transport systems, aircraft, watercraft, robotics, medical devices, weapons, and others. Mechanical engineering emerged as a field during the Industrial Revolution in Europe in the 18th century; however, its development can be traced back several thousand years around the world. In the 19th century, developments in physics led to the development of mechanical engineering science. The field has continually evolved to incorporate advancements; today mechanical engineers are pursuing developments in such areas as composites, mechatronics, and nanotechnology. It also overlaps with aerospace engineering, metallurgical engineering, civil engineering, electrical engineering, manufacturing engineering, chemical engineering, industrial engineering, and other engineering disciplines to varying amounts. Mechanical engineers may also work in the field of biomedical engineering, specifically with biomechanics, transport phenomena, biomechatronics, bionanotechnology, and modeling of biological systems. W16 engine of the Bugatti Veyron. Mechanical engineers design engines, power plants, other machines... ...structures, and vehicles of all sizes. The application of mechanical engineering can be seen in the archives of various ancient and medieval societies. In ancient Greece, the works of Archimedes (287–212 BC) influenced mechanics in the Western tradition and Heron of Alexandria (c. 10–70 AD) created the first steam engine (Aeolipile).[3] In China, Zhang Heng (78–139 AD) improved a water clock and invented a seismometer, and Ma Jun (200–265 AD) invented a chariot with differential gears. The medieval Chinese horologist and engineer Su Song (1020–1101 AD) incorporated an escapement mechanism into his astronomical clock tower two centuries before escapement devices were found in medieval European clocks. He also invented the world's first known endless power-transmitting chain drive.[4] During the Islamic Golden Age (7th to 15th century), Muslim inventors made remarkable contributions in the field of mechanical technology. Al-Jazari, who was one of them, wrote his famous Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices in 1206, and presented many mechanical designs. He is also considered to be the inventor of such mechanical devices which now form the very basic of mechanisms, such as the crankshaft and camshaft.[5] During the 17th century, important breakthroughs in the foundations of mechanical engineering occurred in England. Sir Isaac Newton formulated Newton's Laws of Motion and developed Calculus, the mathematical basis of physics. Newton was reluctant to publish his works for years, but he was finally persuaded to do so by his colleagues, such as Sir Edmond Halley, much to the benefit of all mankind. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz is also credited with creating Calculus during this time period. During the early 19th century industrial revolution, machine tools were developed in England, Germany, and Scotland. This allowed mechanical engineering to develop as a separate field within engineering. They brought with them manufacturing machines and the engines to power them.[6] The first British professional society of mechanical engineers was formed in 1847 Institution of Mechanical Engineers, thirty years after the civil engineers formed the first such professional society Institution of Civil Engineers.[7] On the European continent, Johann von Zimmermann (1820–1901) founded the first factory for grinding machines in Chemnitz, Germany in 1848. In the United States, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) was formed in 1880, becoming the third such professional engineering society, after the American Society of Civil Engineers (1852) and the American Institute of Mining Engineers (1871).[8] The first schools in the United States to offer an engineering education were the United States Military Academy in 1817, an institution now known as Norwich University in 1819, and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in 1825. Education in mechanical engineering has historically been based on a strong foundation in mathematics and science.[9] Archimedes' screw was operated by hand and could efficiently raise water, as the animated red ball demonstrates. Degrees in mechanical engineering are offered at various universities worldwide. In Ireland, Brazil, Philippines, Pakistan, China, Greece, Turkey, North America, South Asia, Nepal, India, Dominican Republic, Iran and the United Kingdom, mechanical engineering programs typically take four to five years of study and result in a Bachelor of Engineering (B.Eng. or B.E.), Bachelor of Science (B.Sc. or B.S.), Bachelor of Science Engineering (B.Sc.Eng.), Bachelor of Technology (B.Tech.), Bachelor of Mechanical Engineering (B.M.E.), or Bachelor of Applied Science (B.A.Sc.) degree, in or with emphasis in mechanical engineering. In Spain, Portugal and most of South America, where neither B.Sc. nor B.Tech. programs have been adopted, the formal name for the degree is "Mechanical Engineer", and the course work is based on five or six years of training. In Italy the course work is based on five years of education, and training, but in order to qualify as an Engineer one has to pass a state exam at the end of the course. In Greece, the coursework is based on a five-year curriculum and the requirement of a 'Diploma' Thesis, which upon completion a 'Diploma' is awarded rather than a B.Sc. In Australia, mechanical engineering degrees are awarded as Bachelor of Engineering (Mechanical) or similar nomenclature[10] although there are an increasing number of specialisations. The degree takes four years of full-time study to achieve. To ensure quality in engineering degrees, Engineers Australia accredits engineering degrees awarded by Australian universities in accordance with the global Washington Accord. Before the degree can be awarded, the student must complete at least 3 months of on the job work experience in an engineering firm. Similar systems are also present in South Africa and are overseen by the Engineering Council of South Africa (ECSA). In the United States, most undergraduate mechanical engineering programs are accredited by the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) to ensure similar course requirements and standards among universities. The ABET web site lists 302 accredited mechanical engineering programs as of 11 March 2014.[11] Mechanical engineering programs in Canada are accredited by the Canadian Engineering Accreditation Board (CEAB),[12] and most other countries offering engineering degrees have similar accreditation societies. In India, to become an engineer, one needs to have an engineering degree like a B.Tech or B.E or have a diploma in engineering or by completing a course in an engineering trade like fitter from the Industrial Training Institute (ITIs) to receive a "ITI Trade Certificate" and also have to pass the All India Trade Test (AITT) with an engineering trade conducted by the National Council of Vocational Training (NCVT) by which one is awarded a "National Trade Certificate". Similar systems are used in Nepal. Some mechanical engineers go on to pursue a postgraduate degree such as a Master of Engineering, Master of Technology, Master of Science, Master of Engineering Management (M.Eng.Mgt. or M.E.M.), a Doctor of Philosophy in engineering (Eng.D. or Ph.D.) or an engineer's degree. The master's and engineer's degrees may or may not include research. The Doctor of Philosophy includes a significant research component and is often viewed as the entry point to academia.[13] The Engineer's degree exists at a few institutions at an intermediate level between the master's degree and the doctorate. Standards set by each country's accreditation society are intended to provide uniformity in fundamental subject material, promote competence among graduating engineers, and to maintain confidence in the engineering profession as a whole. Engineering programs in the U.S., for example, are required by ABET to show that their students can "work professionally in both thermal and mechanical systems areas."[14] The specific courses required to graduate, however, may differ from program to program. Universities and Institutes of technology will often combine multiple subjects into a single class or split a subject into multiple classes, depending on the faculty available and the university's major area(s) of research. The fundamental subjects of mechanical engineering usually include: Mechanical engineers are also expected to understand and be able to apply basic concepts from chemistry, physics, chemical engineering, civil engineering, and electrical engineering. All mechanical engineering programs include multiple semesters of mathematical classes including calculus, and advanced mathematical concepts including differential equations, partial differential equations, linear algebra, abstract algebra, and differential geometry, among others. In addition to the core mechanical engineering curriculum, many mechanical engineering programs offer more specialized programs and classes, such as control systems, robotics, transport and logistics, cryogenics, fuel technology, automotive engineering, biomechanics, vibration, optics and others, if a separate department does not exist for these subjects.[17] Most mechanical engineering programs also require varying amounts of research or community projects to gain practical problem-solving experience. In the United States it is common for mechanical engineering students to complete one or more internships while studying, though this is not typically mandated by the university. Cooperative education is another option. Future work skills[18] research puts demand on study components that feed student's creativity and innovation.[19] Engineers may seek license by a state, provincial, or national government. The purpose of this process is to ensure that engineers possess the necessary technical knowledge, real-world experience, and knowledge of the local legal system to practice engineering at a professional level. Once certified, the engineer is given the title of Professional Engineer (in the United States, Canada, Japan, South Korea, Bangladesh and South Africa), Chartered Engineer (in the United Kingdom, Ireland, India and Zimbabwe), Chartered Professional Engineer (in Australia and New Zealand) or European Engineer (much of the European Union), or Professional Engineer in Philippines and Pakistan. In the U.S., to become a licensed Professional Engineer (PE), an engineer must pass the comprehensive FE (Fundamentals of Engineering) exam, work a minimum of 4 years as an Engineering Intern (EI) or Engineer-in-Training (EIT), and pass the "Principles and Practice" or PE (Practicing Engineer or Professional Engineer) exams. The requirements and steps of this process are set forth by the National Council of Examiners for Engineering and Surveying (NCEES), a composed of engineering and land surveying licensing boards representing all U.S. states and territories. In the UK, current graduates require a BEng plus an appropriate master's degree or an integrated MEng degree, a minimum of 4 years post graduate on the job competency development, and a peer reviewed project report in the candidates specialty area in order to become a Chartered Mechanical Engineer (CEng, MIMechE) through the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. CEng MIMechE can also be obtained via an examination route administered by the City and Guilds of London Institute. In most developed countries, certain engineering tasks, such as the design of bridges, electric power plants, and chemical plants, must be approved by a professional engineer or a chartered engineer. "Only a licensed engineer, for instance, may prepare, sign, seal and submit engineering plans and drawings to a public authority for approval, or to seal engineering work for public and private clients."[20] This requirement can be written into state and provincial legislation, such as in the Canadian provinces, for example the Ontario or Quebec's Engineer Act.[21] In other countries, such as Australia, and the UK, no such legislation exists; however, practically all certifying bodies maintain a code of ethics independent of legislation, that they expect all members to abide by or risk expulsion.[22] Further information: FE Exam, Professional Engineer, Incorporated Engineer, and Washington Accord Mechanical engineers research, design, develop, build, and test mechanical and thermal devices, including tools, engines, and machines. Mechanical engineers typically do the following: Mechanical engineers design and oversee the manufacturing of many products ranging from medical devices to new batteries. They also design power-producing machines such as electric generators, internal combustion engines, and steam and gas turbines as well as power-using machines, such as refrigeration and air-conditioning systems. Like other engineers, mechanical engineers use computers to help create and analyze designs, run simulations and test how a machine is likely to work.[23] The total number of engineers employed in the U.S. in 2015 was roughly 1.6 million. Of these, 278,340 were mechanical engineers (17.28%), the largest discipline by size.[24] In 2012, the median annual income of mechanical engineers in the U.S. workforce was $80,580. The median income was highest when working for the government ($92,030), and lowest in education ($57,090).[25] In 2014, the total number of mechanical engineering jobs was projected to grow 5% over the next decade.[26] As of 2009, the average starting salary was $58,800 with a bachelor's degree.[27] An oblique view of a four-cylinder inline crankshaft with pistons Many mechanical engineering companies, especially those in industrialized nations, have begun to incorporate computer-aided engineering (CAE) programs into their existing design and analysis processes, including 2D and 3D solid modeling computer-aided design (CAD). This method has many benefits, including easier and more exhaustive visualization of products, the ability to create virtual assemblies of parts, and the ease of use in designing mating interfaces and tolerances. Other CAE programs commonly used by mechanical engineers include product lifecycle management (PLM) tools and analysis tools used to perform complex simulations. Analysis tools may be used to predict product response to expected loads, including fatigue life and manufacturability. These tools include finite element analysis (FEA), computational fluid dynamics (CFD), and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM). Using CAE programs, a mechanical design team can quickly and cheaply iterate the design process to develop a product that better meets cost, performance, and other constraints. No physical prototype need be created until the design nears completion, allowing hundreds or thousands of designs to be evaluated, instead of a relative few. In addition, CAE analysis programs can model complicated physical phenomena which cannot be solved by hand, such as viscoelasticity, complex contact between mating parts, or non-Newtonian flows. As mechanical engineering begins to merge with other disciplines, as seen in mechatronics, multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) is being used with other CAE programs to automate and improve the iterative design process. MDO tools wrap around existing CAE processes, allowing product evaluation to continue even after the analyst goes home for the day. They also utilize sophisticated optimization algorithms to more intelligently explore possible designs, often finding better, innovative solutions to difficult multidisciplinary design problems. The field of mechanical engineering can be thought of as a collection of many mechanical engineering science disciplines. Several of these subdisciplines which are typically taught at the undergraduate level are listed below, with a brief explanation and the most common application of each. Some of these subdisciplines are unique to mechanical engineering, while others are a combination of mechanical engineering and one or more other disciplines. Most work that a mechanical engineer does uses skills and techniques from several of these subdisciplines, as well as specialized subdisciplines. Specialized subdisciplines, as used in this article, are more likely to be the subject of graduate studies or on-the-job training than undergraduate research. Several specialized subdisciplines are discussed in this section. Mohr's circle, a common tool to study stresses in a mechanical element Main article: Mechanics Mechanics is, in the most general sense, the study of forces and their effect upon matter. Typically, engineering mechanics is used to analyze and predict the acceleration and deformation (both elastic and plastic) of objects under known forces (also called loads) or stresses. Subdisciplines of mechanics include Mechanical engineers typically use mechanics in the design or analysis phases of engineering. If the engineering project were the design of a vehicle, statics might be employed to design the frame of the vehicle, in order to evaluate where the stresses will be most intense. Dynamics might be used when designing the car's engine, to evaluate the forces in the pistons and cams as the engine cycles. Mechanics of materials might be used to choose appropriate materials for the frame and engine. Fluid mechanics might be used to design a ventilation system for the vehicle (see HVAC), or to design the intake system for the engine. Training FMS with learning robot SCORBOT-ER 4u, workbench CNC Mill and CNC Lathe Main articles: Mechatronics and Robotics Mechatronics is a combination of mechanics and electronics. It is an interdisciplinary branch of mechanical engineering, electrical engineering and software engineering that is concerned with integrating electrical and mechanical engineering to create hybrid systems. In this way, machines can be automated through the use of electric motors, servo-mechanisms, and other electrical systems in conjunction with special software. A common example of a mechatronics system is a CD-ROM drive. Mechanical systems open and close the drive, spin the CD and move the laser, while an optical system reads the data on the CD and converts it to bits. Integrated software controls the process and communicates the contents of the CD to the computer. Robotics is the application of mechatronics to create robots, which are often used in industry to perform tasks that are dangerous, unpleasant, or repetitive. These robots may be of any shape and size, but all are preprogrammed and interact physically with the world. To create a robot, an engineer typically employs kinematics (to determine the robot's range of motion) and mechanics (to determine the stresses within the robot). Robots are used extensively in industrial engineering. They allow businesses to save money on labor, perform tasks that are either too dangerous or too precise for humans to perform them economically, and to ensure better quality. Many companies employ assembly lines of robots, especially in Automotive Industries and some factories are so robotized that they can run by themselves. Outside the factory, robots have been employed in bomb disposal, space exploration, and many other fields. Robots are also sold for various residential applications, from recreation to domestic applications. Main articles: Structural analysis and Failure analysis Structural analysis is the branch of mechanical engineering (and also civil engineering) devoted to examining why and how objects fail and to fix the objects and their performance. Structural failures occur in two general modes: static failure, and fatigue failure. Static structural failure occurs when, upon being loaded (having a force applied) the object being analyzed either breaks or is deformed plastically, depending on the criterion for failure. Fatigue failure occurs when an object fails after a number of repeated loading and unloading cycles. Fatigue failure occurs because of imperfections in the object: a microscopic crack on the surface of the object, for instance, will grow slightly with each cycle (propagation) until the crack is large enough to cause ultimate failure. Failure is not simply defined as when a part breaks, however; it is defined as when a part does not operate as intended. Some systems, such as the perforated top sections of some plastic bags, are designed to break. If these systems do not break, failure analysis might be employed to determine the cause. Structural analysis is often used by mechanical engineers after a failure has occurred, or when designing to prevent failure. Engineers often use online documents and books such as those published by ASM[29] to aid them in determining the type of failure and possible causes. Structural analysis may be used in the office when designing parts, in the field to analyze failed parts, or in laboratories where parts might undergo controlled failure tests. Main article: Thermodynamics Thermodynamics is an applied science used in several branches of engineering, including mechanical and chemical engineering. At its simplest, thermodynamics is the study of energy, its use and transformation through a system. Typically, engineering thermodynamics is concerned with changing energy from one form to another. As an example, automotive engines convert chemical energy (enthalpy) from the fuel into heat, and then into mechanical work that eventually turns the wheels. Thermodynamics principles are used by mechanical engineers in the fields of heat transfer, thermofluids, and energy conversion. Mechanical engineers use thermo-science to design engines and power plants, heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems, heat exchangers, heat sinks, radiators, refrigeration, insulation, and others. A CAD model of a mechanical double seal Main articles: Technical drawing and CNC Drafting or technical drawing is the means by which mechanical engineers design products and create instructions for manufacturing parts. A technical drawing can be a computer model or hand-drawn schematic showing all the dimensions necessary to manufacture a part, as well as assembly notes, a list of required materials, and other pertinent information. A U.S. mechanical engineer or skilled worker who creates technical drawings may be referred to as a drafter or draftsman. Drafting has historically been a two-dimensional process, but computer-aided design (CAD) programs now allow the designer to create in three dimensions. Instructions for manufacturing a part must be fed to the necessary machinery, either manually, through programmed instructions, or through the use of a computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) or combined CAD/CAM program. Optionally, an engineer may also manually manufacture a part using the technical drawings, but this is becoming an increasing rarity, with the advent of computer numerically controlled (CNC) manufacturing. Engineers primarily manually manufacture parts in the areas of applied spray coatings, finishes, and other processes that cannot economically or practically be done by a machine. Drafting is used in nearly every subdiscipline of mechanical engineering, and by many other branches of engineering and architecture. Three-dimensional models created using CAD software are also commonly used in finite element analysis (FEA) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Mechanical engineers are constantly pushing the boundaries of what is physically possible in order to produce safer, cheaper, and more efficient machines and mechanical systems. Some technologies at the cutting edge of mechanical engineering are listed below (see also exploratory engineering). Micron-scale mechanical components such as springs, gears, fluidic and heat transfer devices are fabricated from a variety of substrate materials such as silicon, glass and polymers like SU8. Examples of MEMS components are the accelerometers that are used as car airbag sensors, modern cell phones, gyroscopes for precise positioning and microfluidic devices used in biomedical applications. Main article: Friction stir welding Friction stir welding, a new type of welding, was discovered in 1991 by The Welding Institute (TWI). The innovative steady state (non-fusion) welding technique joins materials previously un-weldable, including several aluminum alloys. It plays an important role in the future construction of airplanes, potentially replacing rivets. Current uses of this technology to date include welding the seams of the aluminum main Space Shuttle external tank, Orion Crew Vehicle test article, Boeing Delta II and Delta IV Expendable Launch Vehicles and the SpaceX Falcon 1 rocket, armor plating for amphibious assault ships, and welding the wings and fuselage panels of the new Eclipse 500 aircraft from Eclipse Aviation among an increasingly growing pool of uses.[30][31][32] Composite cloth consisting of woven carbon fiber Main article: Composite material Composites or composite materials are a combination of materials which provide different physical characteristics than either material separately. Composite material research within mechanical engineering typically focuses on designing (and, subsequently, finding applications for) stronger or more rigid materials while attempting to reduce weight, susceptibility to corrosion, and other undesirable factors. Carbon fiber reinforced composites, for instance, have been used in such diverse applications as spacecraft and fishing rods. Main article: Mechatronics Mechatronics is the synergistic combination of mechanical engineering, electronic engineering, and software engineering. The purpose of this interdisciplinary engineering field is the study of automation from an engineering perspective and serves the purposes of controlling advanced hybrid systems. Main article: Nanotechnology At the smallest scales, mechanical engineering becomes nanotechnology—one speculative goal of which is to create a molecular assembler to build molecules and materials via mechanosynthesis. For now that goal remains within exploratory engineering. Areas of current mechanical engineering research in nanotechnology include nanofilters,[33] nanofilms,[34] and nanostructures,[35] among others. See also: Picotechnology Main article: Finite element analysis This field is not new, as the basis of Finite Element Analysis (FEA) or Finite Element Method (FEM) dates back to 1941. But the evolution of computers has made FEA/FEM a viable option for analysis of structural problems. Many commercial codes such as ANSYS, NASTRAN, and ABAQUS are widely used in industry for research and the design of components. Some 3D modeling and CAD software packages have added FEA modules. In the recent times, cloud simulation platforms like SimScale are becoming more common. Other techniques such as finite difference method (FDM) and finite-volume method (FVM) are employed to solve problems relating heat and mass transfer, fluid flows, fluid surface interaction, etc. In recent years meshfree methods like the smoothed particle hydrodynamics are gaining popularity in case of solving problems involving complex geometries, free surfaces, moving boundaries, and adaptive refinement.[citation needed] Main article: Biomechanics Biomechanics is the application of mechanical principles to biological systems, such as humans, animals, plants, organs, and cells.[36] Biomechanics also aids in creating prosthetic limbs and artificial organs for humans. Biomechanics is closely related to engineering, because it often uses traditional engineering sciences to analyse biological systems. Some simple applications of Newtonian mechanics and/or materials sciences can supply correct approximations to the mechanics of many biological systems. Over the past decade the Finite element method (FEM) has also entered the Biomedical sector highlighting further engineering aspects of Biomechanics. FEM has since then established itself as an alternative to in vivo surgical assessment and gained the wide acceptance of academia. The main advantage of Computational Biomechanics lies in its ability to determine the endo-anatomical response of an anatomy, without being subject to ethical restrictions.[37] This has led FE modelling to the point of becoming ubiquitous in several fields of Biomechanics while several projects have even adopted an open source philosophy (e.g. BioSpine). Main article: Computational fluid dynamics Computational fluid dynamics, usually abbreviated as CFD, is a branch of fluid mechanics that uses numerical methods and algorithms to solve and analyze problems that involve fluid flows. Computers are used to perform the calculations required to simulate the interaction of liquids and gases with surfaces defined by boundary conditions. With high-speed supercomputers, better solutions can be achieved. Ongoing research yields software that improves the accuracy and speed of complex simulation scenarios such as transonic or turbulent flows. Initial validation of such software is performed using a wind tunnel with the final validation coming in full-scale testing, e.g. flight tests. Main article: Acoustical engineering Acoustical engineering is one of many other sub disciplines of mechanical engineering and is the application of acoustics. Acoustical engineering is the study of Sound and Vibration. These engineers work effectively to reduce noise pollution in mechanical devices and in buildings by soundproofing or removing sources of unwanted noise. The study of acoustics can range from designing a more efficient hearing aid, microphone, headphone, or recording studio to enhancing the sound quality of an orchestra hall. Acoustical engineering also deals with the vibration of different mechanical systems.[38] Manufacturing engineering, Aerospace engineering and Automotive engineering are sometimes grouped with mechanical engineering. A bachelor's degree in these areas will typically have a difference of a few specialized classes. Lists Associations Wikibooks

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